Recently, applications of polymers for tribological purposes have been increasing. Tribology is a science that deals with friction, wear and lubrication of interacting surfaces in relative motion. The frictional force between two solids is usually attributed to adhesion and deformation effects; where the adhesion force involves the shearing between the contact surfaces and deformation is due to the hard material’s asperities plowing on the softer material. Due to their low surface energy, low shear strength and low elastic modulus, polymers will usually evidence a low COF when they are used for tribological applications. Understanding the tribological performance of the polymers is crucial for their successful applications. The tribology of polymers is very complicated: friction is affected by load, sliding velocity and temperature; wear can arise from abrasion, adhesion and fatigue. Therefore, tribological experiments that simulate the real working conditions are the most effective way to understand if the material is suitable for the applications or not.
Polymers are typically in either a thick section (bulk) form or a deposited coating format when they are used for tribological applications. Polymers in bulk format have been widely used, such as the top layer for thrust tilting pad bearings, washers, bushing and so forth. Usually, polymers in pure form (referred to as unfilled polymers) may not satisfy the tribological application needs. Adding different fillers and reinforcements (carbon fiber, glass fiber, solid lubricants, etc.) in the polymers can significantly improve their mechanical, thermal, and tribological properties. A great deal of research work has shown the great tribological performance of bulk format of polymer composites: low COF and low wear.
However, polymers in bulk form have some shortcomings such as low dimension precision because of high thermal expansion; and high surface temperature because thick polymers work as thermal insulators and so the heat evolved by friction is not easily transported. To maintain polymers’ advantages and minimize these drawbacks of bulk polymers, thin polymer coatings are an excellent solution. The tens of micron thickness of polymer coating cannot expand/shrink much even when there is a wide temperature change. And the thin polymer coatings do not stongly insulate the heat and thus can operate under reduced surface temperatures. Moreover, thin polymer coatings more cost-effective because of their easy depositions method and lower quantities of material needed. Polymer coatings have been widely used as tibological protective coatings, such as erosion/corrosion resistance coatings for automobile , transparent protective coating for touch panel screens , hydrophobic coatings for moisture repellent and dirt resistance , bio-implant materials like artificial joints , bearing materials for compressor bearings  or thrust pad bearings . In addition to these moderate conditions, thin polymeric coatings can also work in extreme working environments including: extreme temperature range from cryogenic to high temperature dry sliding in space application; as well as the bearings in the Electrical Submersible Pumps in oil wells and drilling string of oil and gas drilling application, where the relative surfaces need to endure high temperature, high load, high speed, high environment pressure, and extreme abrasion wear.
ATSP NOWETM products serve well for both bulk and coating format and have been showing excellent tribologcial performance over wide temperature range (-160˚C to 300˚C) with other extreme conditions such as high load, high speed, abrasive conditions, and boundary lubrication.
 Lan P. Tribological Performance of Advanced Polymeric Coatings Under Extreme Operating Conditions 2017.
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